SOLAR PANEL- Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue, Plant Economics Solar Panels are in general Silicon made Rectangular Shaped Glass Covered Products which Produce Electricity when exposed to the Sun. These Panels produce Direct Current (DC) Electricity which has to be converted by a Solar Invertr to Alternating Current (AC) Electricity to be used by Consumers. . Solar Panel produced Electricity usually costs between Rs 15-18 /KwH (much higher than the Rs 3-6/unit paid normally) which makes it uneconomical except in special cases like off grid applications. Replacing expensive Diesel powered Telecom Towers with Solar Panels is also an option. Sharply falling Solar Panel costs should make it competitive with your electricity in 2-3 years. In places like Italy, Solar Electricity is already competitive due to high prices of electricity.
Conversion of light energy in electrical energy is based on a phenomenon called photovoltaic effect. Silicon is the most widely used semiconductor material for constructing photovoltaic cell. When semiconductor materials are exposed to light, the some of the photons of light ray are absorbed by the semiconductor crystal which causes significant number of free electrons in the crystal. This is the basic reason of producing electricity due to photovoltaic effect.
The heart of the solar energy generation system is the Solar cell. It consists of three major elements, namely:- the semiconductor material, junction formed within the semiconductor, the contacts on the front and back of the cell that allow the current to flow to the external circuit.
Uses and Application of photovoltaic are in agriculture, industry, telecommunication and public services.
Solar power is attractive because it is abundant and offers a solution to fossil fuel emissions and global climate change. Earth receives solar energy at the rate of approximately 1,73,000 TW. In terms of all renewable energy, currently India is ranked fifth in the world with 15,691.4 MW grid-connected and 367.9 MW off-grid renewable energy based power capacity. India is among top 5 destinations worldwide for solar energy development as per Ernst & Young’s renewable energy attractiveness index. As a whole there is a good scope for entrepreneurs for investment.
Plant capacity: Solar PV Module (240 watt) : 350 Nos/day (25 MW) Plant & machinery: Rs 278 Lakhs
Working capital: - T.C.I: Cost of project: Rs 852 Lakhs
Return: 29.00% Break even: 58.00%
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Iron oxide - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue, Plant Economics Iron oxide and oxide-hydroxide are widespread in nature, play an important role in many geological and biological processes, and are widely utilized by humans, e.g., as iron ores, pigments and catalysts in thermite. Common rust is a form of iron (III) oxide. Iron oxides are widely used as inexpensive, durable, pigments in paints, coatings and colored concretes. Colours commonly available are in the “earthy” end of the yellow/orange/red/brown/black range.
Iron oxides are produced from ferrous sulfate by heat soaking, removal of water, decomposition, washing, filtration, drying and grinding. Chemical formula: Fe2O3. Appearance: Powder of size around 40 micron.
Iron (III) oxide or ferric oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3. It is one of the three main oxides of iron. As the mineral known as hematite, Fe2O3 is the main source of the iron for the steel industry. Fe2O3 is ferromagnetic, dark red, and readily attacked by acids. Iron (III) oxide is often called rust. To some extent this label is useful, because rust shares several properties and has a similar composition. To chemists, rust is considered an ill-defined material, described as hydrated ferric oxide
The overwhelming application of Iron (III) oxide is as the feedstock of the steel and iron industries, e.g. the production of iron, steel, and many alloys. Black iron oxide has the highest tint strength, generally achieving saturation at 6 percent dosage. Brown has a slightly lower tint strength, levelling -off at approximately 7 percent dosage, followed by 8 percent for red and 9 percent for yellow.
The difference in colour/shade between one pigment and another is due to the surface structure of the particle. Pigments of the same family, such as reds for example, could have different undertone. Upon dilution with a white extender, reds may appear purple or pink. The reason for this is that a red pigment particle, depending on its structure, may reflect the red component of light plus a certain amount of blue (purple undertone) or some yellow (pink undertone).
They are produced in either anhydrous or hydrated forms. Their range of hues includes yellows, reds, browns and blacks. The food-quality iron oxides are primarily distinguished from technical grades by their comparatively low levels of contamination by other metals; this is achieved by the selection and control of the source of the iron or by the extent of chemical purification during the manufacturing process.
Iron Oxide is a very fine powder of ferric oxide known as “jewellers rouge”, “red rouge”, or simply “rouge”. It is used to put the final polish on metallic jewellery and lenses, and historically as a cosmetic. Rouge is sold as a powder, paste, laced on polishing cloths or solid bar (with a wax or grease binder). Iron(III) oxide is also used as a pigment in cosmetics. Additionally, Iron oxides are used as pigments in dental composites alongside titanium oxides. Iron Oxide pigments are also used in paints and coatings; colour concentrates; and mulch.
Iron oxide dispersant is one of many solutions used to purify water in water treatment facilities. It is considered to be a superior phosphate and zinc stabilizer stressed cooling water systems and an excellent iron and sludge dispersant in boilers.
Compact pigment : Whereas inorganic binders do not disperse to 100% during the usual mixing times allowed, those prepared with organic wetting and deflocculating agents achieve excellent dispersion and hence provide high tinting strength in concrete products.
Bayer developed compacted pigments which also incorporate organic dispersing agents. In making them, a pigment paste is pre-shaped (by the use of perforated rollers or matrices) and the prepared particles are rounded subsequently in granulation drums or on granulation plates.
Comparison of natural iron oxide and synthetic iron oxide pigment
The use of natural iron oxide pigment dates back centuries to prehistoric times and can be seen in cave paintings around the world.
However, natural iron oxide pigments are nearly overshadowed by the synthetic variety, due to its consistency and superior tailor made properties. Synthetically prepared iron oxide pigment has been found to possess better texture, brilliance and staining power compared to natural pigment.
When the colour of the paint is important, synthetic iron oxides are predominantly used because they have greater tinting strength than natural oxides. But in primers or undercoats, which are not so colour dependent as the finishing paints, natural iron oxide pigments may be used. Ceramics may also use natural oxides to provide colour for frits and glazes.
Iron oxide pigment can be either produced in synthetic process or refined from naturally occurring ore deposits.
A number of different processes have been developed for manufacturing synthetic iron oxide pigments. Important actually used production methods are as follows:
• Laux process
• Calcination process
• Penniman process
• Precipitation process
Iron oxide pigments are used in the coatings and colorants, construction, plastics and toner industries. The demand for iron oxide pigment would be mainly driven by the performance and growth of the paint and coating industry and polymer master batch sector.
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Plant capacity: - Plant & machinery: -
Working capital: - T.C.I: -
Return: 1.00% Break even: N/A
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