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Cereal Food Products-Wheat, Barley, Oats, Corn, Sorghum

Saturday, November 29, 2014

A cereal is a grass, a member of the monocot family Poaceae, cultivated for the edible components of its grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis), composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran. The quality of cereal products is determined by a variety of characteristics which may be assigned different significance depending on the desired and use or type of product ( wheat, rice, corn, oat, barley and sorghum ). Cereals and wholegrain foods can reduce the risk of developing certain diseases, including coronary heart disease, colon cancer, diabetes and diverticular disease. Common cereal foods include bread, breakfast cereals and pasta.

Types of grains, whole grains and cereals-

Grains include wheat, barley, oat, rye, corn, rice, millet and triticale. Whole grains include whole meal or wholegrain breads or crisp breads, dark ‘seedy’ breads, wholegrain breakfast cereals, wheat germ, bran, endosperm, sperm etc.

WHEAT- Wheat is a grass that is cultivated around the world. Globally, it is the second-largest cereal crop, tied with maize; the third being rice. Wheat is used to make flour, livestock, feed etc.  World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined.

RICE- Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryzaglaberrima (African rice). As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia. Rice cultivation is well suited to poor countries because — though it is very labor- intensive to cultivate.

CORN- corn is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain the grain, which are seeds called kernels. Maize kernels are often used in cooking as a starch.

OAT-Oats are the fruits of any of several cereal grains. They are used for food and as fodder for animals, especially poultry and horses.

BARLEY- Barley is a major food and animal feed crop, and a member of the grass family. Barley is the fifth largest cultivated cereal crop in the world.

SORGHUM-Sorghum is a genus of grasses with about 30 species, one of which is raised for grain and many of which are used as fodder plants, either cultivated or as part of pasture.

 

In a country like India, one of the biggest challenges is feeding a population of 1.1 billion. There has been a long tradition of studies on demand and supply of food grains in India that have provided forecasts. The shortcomings of earlier studies, to develop our own models to forecast demand and supply for agricultural products in India for 2010, 2020, and 2025. The wheat milling industry produces bran, red dog, germ, and shorts and these secondary fractions amount to approximately 25% of the whole grain. Maize, wheat and rice together accounted for 87% of all grain production worldwide, and 43% of all food calories. The demand of cereals will exceed domestic production by 23 million tons by 2020 double the highest historical level of exports. If instead recent historical growth in productivity is maintained, India will be in a much stronger trade position.

Further information:

Wheat, rice, corn, oat, barley and sorghum processing handbook (cereal food technology) describes detailed information on subject. The major contents of this book are- Wheat- Classification of Wheat, Moisture Consideration, Comparison of Nutrient Values, The Concept of Wheat Quality, and Feed Uses for Wheat, and Endeavors to Find Industrial Uses for Wheat, Criteria of Wheat Quality etc.  Rice - reduction  And Utilization, Origin of Rice, Comparison of Rice with Other, Cereal Grains, Composition of Rice and Cereals

Breeding Rice Varieties with Specific, Industrial Uses for Rice and Rice by-Products

Caryopsis and Composition of Rice, corn- Genetics and Breeding

Inheritance and Heritability Biotechnology, Breeding, Population Breeding Methods. Barley-

Genetics and Breeding, Inheritance and Heritability, Biotechnology, Breeding, Population Breeding, Methods, Hybrid Barley, Plant.

In order to get “Wheat, Rice, Corn, Oat, Barley and Sorghum Processing Handbook” please visit-

http://goo.gl/WtodbI

Source: NPCS Team


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